What are the most common causes of infertility


Even after one year of unprotected sexual activity, the inability to conceive and give birth to a child is commonly referred to as sub-fertility or infertility. About 10-15% of couples struggle to conceive and require medical assistance. Infertility is the result of male, female, or a combination of male and female factors in one third of these couples.

Understanding the fundamental mechanisms of fertility is crucial to understanding the problems that lead to infertility. The synchronisation of several complex endocrine systems required for pregnancy occurs throughout human reproduction.


These are the steps in this process:

1. Each month, one of a woman's ovaries must release an egg for fertilisation (ovulation).


2. In order to reach the uterus, the egg must travel through a fallopian tube (womb).


3. Along the journey, a man's sperm must unite with (fertilise) the egg.

4.The fertilised egg then gets implanted inside of the uterus.

If any of these steps are problematic, infertility may result. Infertility can result from problems with the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, sperm, or hormones.


Below are the causes of infertility in male:

1. A condition known as varicocele (VAIR-ih-koh-seel). This occurs when a man has one or more testicles with excessively big veins. The testicles warm as a result. Heat may have an impact on the quantity or morphology of sperm.


2. Other circumstances that result in men producing either too little or no sperm.


3. The sperms movement. This may be because of the form of the sperm. On rare occasions, injuries to the   reproductive system, including wounds, can cause sperm to get stopped.


Sometimes a man has sperm-related issues from birth. Other times the issues arise later in life as a result of disease or injury. For example, men with cystic fibrosis typically struggle with infertility.


Reasons for risks of infertility in men

The general health and way of life of a guy can affect the quality of his sperm. Some aspects that may have an effect on the amount or quality of sperm include:

1. Alcohol addiction


2. Strong smoker habits


3.  Age


4. Environmental pollutants, such as lead and pesticides


5. Health issues like kidney disease, or hormonal issues

6. Heavy medication


Below are the causes of infertility in female:

Ovulation issues account for the majority of incidences of female infertility. There would be no eggs for fertilisation without ovulation. Menstrual cycles that are inconsistent or non-existent are some of the indicators of your woman not ovulating normally.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome frequently results in issues with ovulation (PCOS). Ovulation can be disrupted by PCOS, a hormone imbalance condition and this is one of the most frequent reasons for female infertility. Primary ovarian insufficiency is another factor that affects ovulation (POI). POI occurs when a woman's ovaries stop functioning adequately before the age of 40.


Women's reproductive issues can also be caused by less frequent factors like:

1. Blocked fallopian tubes as a result of endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory illness, or ectopic pregnancy surgery.


2. Unhealthy uterine conditions.

3. Uterine fibroids, which are non-cancerous masses of muscle and tissue on the uterus's walls.


Numerous factors can change a woman's ability to conceive. These consist of:

1. Age


2. Smoking or Abuse of alcohol


3. Stress clubbed with a bad diet


4. Excess workout, athletic training


5. Having an unhealthy weight


6. Sexually transmissible diseases (STIs)

7. Hormonally-related health issues such as PCOS and primary ovarian insufficiency  



There are several methods for treating infertility, including medication, surgery, artificial insemination, and assisted reproductive technology. These therapies are frequently combined. Typically, infertility is treated with either drugs or surgery.

Infertility therapies are recommended by doctors depending on:

? Tests' findings


?  How long have they been trying to get pregnant?


? Ages of both the male and female


? The spouses' general health

? Inclination of the partners


The following methods are frequently used by doctors to treat male infertility:

1. Doctors can assist males with sexual issues like impotence or early ejaculation. In these circumstances, behavioural treatment and/or medications may be used.


2. Insufficient sperm: The root of the issue can occasionally be corrected by surgery. In some cases, doctors surgically remove sperm from the male reproductive system. Additionally, antibiotics can be used to treat illnesses that lower sperm count.

3. Sperm movement: Sperm may not always be present in semen due to a blockage in a man's system. Surgery can sometimes solve the issue.


Surgery can also be used to treat some physical issues in women.

Women with ovulation issues are treated with a variety of fertility drugs. It's vital to discuss the benefits and drawbacks of these medications with your doctor. You should be aware of any potential risks, advantages, and negative effects.



It is a fundamental human right to pursue the highest level of physical and mental well-being. It is up to the individual and the couple to decide on the number, timing, and spacing of children. Infertility may interfere with these basic human rights. Therefore, resolving infertility is crucial to achieving people's and couples' rights to have children. The first step in preparing for early fertility is to have a better awareness of the factors that lead to infertility in the relationship. This may mark the beginning of the fertility cure and increase the likelihood that infertility will be successfully treated.


For more information related to infertility, its cure and post-delivery care, keep reading our space on our website : https://www.drshubhragoyal.com/


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